What’s anemia got to do with dementia?




A new study finds evidence that having anemia increases your risk for dementia.


As a part of healthy aging, we ought to care for our bodies as much as we care for our brain. There is a BIG connection between the two that we’re learning more about everyday.

Just this week I read some new research, which suggests that having anemia today might increase your risk for developing dementia in the future.  The study is called the Health, Aging and Body Composition study and it followed 2,552 men and women in their 70s for 11 years. Over this time, researchers found that the people who had anemia were more than 40% likely to have dementia over that 11-years compared to people who did not have anemia1.

But how do we know that anemia is directly causing the dementia? After all, dementia has many causes and risk factors like genetics, obesity, drug abuse, etc.  The truth is we don’t know for certain that anemia directly causes dementia. In the study, researchers did consider these other risk factors but still found anemia to be an “independent risk factor.” This means that even if anemia is your only risk factor for dementia you are more likely to get dementia than if you did not have anemia.

Anemia in older adults is pretty common and increases with age: someone who is 65-74 years old has an 8% of getting anemia but this quickly rises to 20% when they hit 852. Researchers acknowledge that it is not known if treating anemia will prevent dementia. But if you ask me, it certainly wouldn’t hurt!

It is safe to say that both you and I would rather not live with anemia or dementia. Just because we’re aging does not mean we should accept a lower quality of life. While some types of anemia cannot be prevented others can be.

Many types of nutrition-related anemias can be prevented eating a diet rich in iron, B12, folate and vitamin C. Here’s what you can add to your future shopping list3:

  • o Meats like beef, pork and chicken  (iron, B12)
  • o Beans and lentils (iron, folate)
  • o Breads and pastas (folate)
  • o Milk and cheeses (B12)
  • o Eggs (B12)
  • o Oranges, lemons, grapefruits (folate, vitamin C)
  • o Kale, collards, spinach and other dark leafy greens (folate, iron)
  • o Melons and berries (Vitamin C)

iron b12 folate foods







  1. http://www.agoritsaslaw.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/Anemia.jpg
  2. http://700childrens.nationwidechildrens.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/anemia-770×420.jpg



  1. 1.    http://www.alzinfo.org/03/articles/diagnosis-and-causes/anemia-tied-dementia-risk
  2. 2.    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2572827/
  3. 3.    http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/anemia/basics/prevention/con-20026209

The Longevity Diet! – Eat Smart, Live Right.

The Longevity Diet! – Eat Smart, Live Right.

Aging is an inevitable part of life.  What can we do fulfill a longer, healthier life?  Epidemiological studies suggest that exercise, caloric restriction, and eating nutrient-rich foods can delay the aging process and reduce the risk of many chronic illnesses4.  Incorporating healthful foods into your diet is an essential step.

Fruits and vegetables contain fiber, minerals, vitamins, disease-fighting chemicals called antioxidants1,2,4,7, and flavonoids, which are associated with a decreased risk of coronary heart disease5.  Vitamin C helps protects the immune system2 while magnesium and potassium help strengthen bones1!

Complex carbohydrates are a rich source of fiber, which can prevent heart disease and diabetes.  They help maintain steady blood glucose and insulin levels, and keep you feeling full, too!  Legumes are rich in antioxidants, vitamin E, fiber, and B vitamins1,2.

Low-fat dairy products provide calcium, vitamin D, and protein, which help strengthen bones and muscles.  Adequate vitamin D levels may reduce the risk of prostate, colon, and breast cancers1.

Consumption of nuts is associated with a decreased risk of having a stroke.  Almonds are rich in vitamin E, pecans contain antioxidants, and walnuts provide omega-3 fats1,2.

Fish contain omega-3 fats, which help lower blood pressure and triglyceride levels, and reduce the risk of plaque buildup in the arteries1.  Fish and lean meats also provide protein…a very important nutrient as we age.  Recommended fish include salmon, sardines, and canned tuna.1

Red wine reduces the risk of coronary heart disease4, dark chocolate helps lower blood pressure6, and antioxidant-rich garlic has anti-inflammatory effects7.


Consuming nutrient-dense foods and exercising while limiting high sugar, high fat, caloric-dense foods helps prevent an array of illnesses, including cardiovascular diseases and cancer4. Eat smart, live right, and promote longevity!

Guest Blogger:  Kristy Cho



1.  Ward, Elizabeth, M.  “Aging Well: Eating Right for Longevity.”  WebMD (2010): n.pag.  Web.  <http://www.webmd.com/diet/guide/aging-well-eating-right-for-longevity>.

2.  Wong, Wei Yin.  “Eat Right to Live Longer.”  Suite 101 (2009): n.pag.  Web. <http://www.suite101.com/content/eat-right-to-live-longer-a109239>.

3.  Paturel, Amy.  “Eating Right to Extend Your Life.”  Everyday Health (2008).  n.pag.  Web.  <http://www.everydayhealth.com/longevity/extending-your-life.aspx>.

4.  Rockenfeller, P., Madeo, F.  “Ageing and eating.”  BBA – Molecular Research 1803.4 (2010): 499-506.

5.  Hertog, M. G., Feskens, E., et al.  “Dietary antioxidant flavonoids and risk of coronary heart disease: the Zurphen Elderly Study.”  The Lancet 342 (1993): 1007-1011.

6.  Djousse, L., Hopkins, P. N., et al.  “Chocolate consumption is inversely associated with prevalent coronary heart disease: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study.”  Clin Nutr (2010).

7.  Vazquez-Prieto, M.A., Miatello, R.M.  “Organosulfur Compounds and Cardiovascular Disease.”  Mol Aspects Med (2010).








Preventing Folic Acid Deficiency.

To supplement or not to supplement, that is the question: preventing folic acid deficiency.

Folic acid, also known as folate, is most famous for its role in preventing birth defects in infants. However, folic acid deficiency has also been associated with age related diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s so it is important for older adults to consume the correct amount of folic acid in their diet.1 This can be tricky and controversial, however. Folic acid appears in dozens of forms in our food and each form is absorbed differently by our bodies. In 1996, the USDA mandated that all flour and uncooked cereal-grain products be fortified with a form of folic acid that is absorbed at about twice the rate of natural forms of folate found naturally in our food. Also, anywhere from 50-90% of folic acid is lost during the preparation of foods. This makes it difficult to determine the amount of folic acid we consume each day.

So why not just take a folic acid supplement that provides 100% of our needs?

While consuming too little folate been proven to be unhealthy, there is concern that overconsumption can be harmful. This is due in part to the close relationship between vitamin B12 and folic acid. Folic acid supplementation can mask the harmful effects of B12 deficiency which older adults are at a higher risk of.2 Recently, there has also been speculation that high folic acid intake may lead to harmful levels in the blood.3 A recent study found that over 84% of older adults taking a supplement with folic acid exceeded the recommended amount in the diet.4

So how should an older adult get the right amount of folic acid in their diet?

The easiest way of obtaining 100% of the recommended amount of folic acid is by taking a multivitamin or by eating a fortified food product such as breakfast cereal every day. There may be some risk of getting too much folic acid however, and older adults consuming these products should be sure to take a vitamin B12 supplement. Folic acid can also be obtained from natural food sources too, which have other health benefits. If you decide not to take a supplement and do not regularly eat fortified products, the best sources of folic acid are liver, kidney beans, lima beans, and fresh dark leafy veggies. Asking your doctor check your B12 and folic acid levels is the most sure-fire way of determining your needs.

Helpful Handout:  Folic Acid and the Older Adult_nkelly

Guest Blogger:  Nate Kelly


  1. Irizarry et al. (2005) Association of homocysteine with plasma amyloid beta protein in aging and neurodegenerative disease. Neurology, 2005 Nov 8, 65(9), 1402-8.
  2. 2. Morris et al. (2007) Folate and vitamin B-12 status in relation to anemia, macrocytosis, and cognitive impairment in older Americans in the age of folic acid fortification. Am J Clin Nutr, 2007, 85, 193-200.
  3. 3. Morris et al. (2010) Circulating unmetabolized folic acid and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in relation to anemia, macrocytosis, and cognitive test performance in American seniors. Am J Clin Nutr, 2010 Jun; 91(6):1733-44.
  4. 4. Weeden, Allisha. Impact of Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Use on Adequacy of Micronutrient Intakes of Older Adult Kansans. Available at: http://www.eatright.org/search.aspx?search=weeden.

Warfarin: You can have your leafy greens and eat them too!

Warfarin:  You can have your leafy greens and eat them too!

Have you heard your health provider say, “Avoid dark leafy greens”? Or have you seen a medication label that read, “Do not consume grapefruit”? These are discouraging messages when these may be food you love. The good news is that you can still enjoy these foods!


Warfarin is a blood thinner and Vitamin K does the opposite of this drug by helping blood to clot. So eating more Vitamin K rich foods than usual could decrease the blood thinning effects of warfarin while eating less vitamin K could increase the blood thinning effects.1 The important thing to remember is eat Vitamin K consistently and moderately. Foods high in Vitamin K, like dark green vegetables, should be enjoyed as a part of a balanced diet. Take a look at the handout provided to see which foods have high amounts of vitamin K and those that have less. Keeping the amounts of vitamin K relatively consistent from day to day allows for you to find the dose of warfarin that is right for you and your diet without interfering with the drug’s effect. 2

Grapefruit has also been a concern with warfarin because certain components found in grapefruits and grapefruit juice stops the break down of warfarin so grapefruit may have the potential to hinder the benefits of your medication but typically in large amounts. 3 Ultimately, grapefruit is of little concern for interacting with Warfarin.4 So feel free to enjoy half a grapefruit or small glass of grapefruit juice.

Handout: Food_Interactions_with_Warfarin

Guest Blogger:  Tara Hubbard


1.  Pronsky, Zaneta M., MS, RD, LDN, FADA. Food- Medication Interactions. Ed. 15. 2008. Pg 320-32

2.Booth, Sarah Ph.D., and Centurelli, Maria, Pharm. D. Vitamin K: A Practical Guide to the Dietary Management of Patients on Warfarin Volume 57, Issue 9, Article first published online: 27 APR 2009. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1753-4887.1999.tb01815.x/pdf.

3. Runkel M, Tegtmeier M, Legrum W. Metabolic and analytical interactions of grapefruit juice and 1,2-benzophyrone (coumarin) in man. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1996;50:225-230.

4. Pronsky, Zaneta M., MS, RD, LDN, FADA. Food-Medication Interactions. Ed. 14. 2006.



1.    KCBY-TV, 3451 Broadway, North Bend, OR 97459


2. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/imagepages/18116.htm





Nothing Fishy About Heart Health and Omega-3 Consumption!

Nothing Fishy About Heart Health and Omega-3 Consumption!

Omega-3 Fatty Acid consumption is important throughout life, but many studies have shown that omega-3s can be exceedingly beneficial as we age.   The risk of several illnesses that are common in older adults, like heart attack and high blood pressure, can be reduced by consuming omega-3s.  In addition to the benefits for blood pressure and risk of heart attack, omega-3 consumption has also been shown to decrease cholesterol levels while other studies indicate a relationship between omega-3 consumption and improved arthritis symptoms, improved immune function, and reduced blood clotting.   Other studies are currently investigating a relationship between omega-3s and reduced risk of age-related macular degeneration, or the loss of the center field of vision.

What are omega-3 fatty acids?

Omega-3 fatty acids are essential fats that are only found in our diet and cannot be made in our bodies like some other nutrients. Two important omega-3 fatty acids are EPA and DHA.  ALA, a third form of omega-3 fatty acid, is found in plant sources.  It is unknown whether ALA provides similar benefits as DHA and EPA.

What are DHA and EPA?

Some nutrition labels may specify “DHA” and “EPA” rather than” omega-3 fatty acids” – don’t be confused!  DHA and EPA are specific omega-3 fatty acids.  Scientific studies have thoroughly investigated and determined the benefits of DHA and EPA, specifically.   Look for these omega-3s on the labels of plant sources and fish oil supplements.

Where are omega-3s found?

Omega-3s are found mainly in fish, like herring, salmon, and tuna, but omega-3 fatty acids are also found in smaller amounts in soy (like tofu), canola oil, green leafy vegetables, and walnuts, pecans, and hazelnuts.  Alternatively, omega-3s can be consumed through supplements, although the evidence of the benefits of omega-3 from supplements and non-fish sources is not as strong as the benefits from omega-3 fatty acids in fish.   Fish oil supplements, which contain DHA and EPA, are the most common supplemental form of omega-3 fatty acids.

How much omega-3 should I eat?

Two servings of omega-3 per week are recommended for adults.  A serving size of fish is approximately the size of a deck of cards*.  Omega-3s can easily be incorporated into two meals per week, like adding a tuna steak or salmon to a spinach salad, or eating a handful of chopped walnuts as a snack between meals.

Alternatively, because fish oil supplements vary in DHA and EPA amounts, fish oil supplements should be taken as directed by the label.  Usually fish oil supplements are in the form of a pill and are taken daily.




Helpful Handouts:

Omega3 Everyday Food Sources Handout

Omega3 Sources Handout

Omega 3 Handout

Guest Blogger:  Lara Holland


Schweigert, F. J., and J. Reimann. “Micronutrients and their Relevance for the Eye – Function of Lutein, Zeaxanthin and Omega-3 Fatty Acids.” Klinische Monatsblatter fur Augenheilkunde (2010).

Weitz, D., et al. “Fish Oil for the Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease.” Cardiology in review 18.5 (2010): 258-63.






Keep Your EYES on Nutrition

Keep Your EYES on Nutrition

The idea of having impaired vision or going blind can be a scary one, but science has shown that the foods you eat now can help slow the progression and may even prevent future eye diseases.

Causes of blindness in older adults include macular degeneration, cataracts and also retinopathy as a result of uncontrolled diabetes.   Retinopathy can be prevented by taking control of your diabetes and keeping the levels of sugar in your blood at a normal range.  If you have diabetes, it is important to limit your intake of foods such as grains, starches and sugars, to check your blood sugar levels regularly and to talk to your doctor about your diabetes.

Whether or not you have diabetes, healthy foods can help to prevent macular degeneration and cataracts.  It is a good idea to stay away from saturated fats found in fried foods, fatty meats, and junk foods and instead to eat more omega-3 fatty acids which are found in high quantities in the eye.  Omega-3 fatty acids can be found in fish, walnuts, flax seed, and canola oil.

Consuming foods with zinc and antioxidants are another great way to take care of your eyes.  Zinc is needed to maintain the function of the eye and you can make sure you are consuming enough zinc by eating lean meats, seafood, beans, nuts, seeds and whole grains.  Antioxidants fight against cell damage in the body, including the eye, and are found in dark leafy greens such as spinach and kale, and brightly colored fruits and vegetables such as peas, broccoli, carrots, and squash.  The more vegetables and fruits you eat, the better, so be sure to eat plenty every day!

Good vision and healthy eyes are closely related to healthy eating, so keep these tips in mind when you are making your food choices!

Helpful Handout:  Eye Health and Nutrition




Guest Blogger:  Laura Joseph


Tan J, Wang JJ, Flood V, Rochtchina E, Smith W, Mitchell P. Dietary antioxidants and the long-term incidence of age-related macular degeneration: The Blue Mountains Study. Ophthalmology. 2007:115(2);334-341.

Nutritional factors in the development of age-related eye disease. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2003:27;S5.

Age-Related Eye Disease Study. National Eye Institute, U.S. National Institutes of Health.

Be Ready, Be Healthy, Preventing B12 Deficiency

Be Ready, Be Healthy, Preventing B12 Deficiency

Why do I need vitamin B12?

Vitamin B12 is necessary for healthy function of nerve and blood cells.  Deficiency of vitamin B12 can lead to weakness and fatigue and more serious health problems like decreased mental function and pernicious anemia.

Why is this important to me?

Vitamin B12 deficiency becomes a problem as we age.  Often people don’t eat enough vitamin B12 in their diet. Another problem is decreased absorption of vitamin B12 in the gastrointestinal track.  Decreased absorption is common as we age and may also be caused by chronic liver disease and drug interactions (including some antibiotics, metformin and acid blockers).

What can I do to get more vitamin B12 in my diet?

You can improve your vitamin B12 intake by eating 2 or more foods listed in the table below. The major food sources of vitamin B12 are meat, seafood and fortified cereals.

Very High High Fairly High
Beef Liver Salmon Cod
Crab Meat Sardines Milk
All Bran cereal Ground beef Cottage cheese
Wheat bran flakes Tuna fish Beef frankfurter
Chicken Liver Plain yogurt Pork loin chops
Clam Soymilk, fortified Beef bologna
Oysters Shrimp Squid
Herring Halibut

Should I take a vitamin B12 supplement?

Although you may eat foods high in vitamin B12, you may not absorb enough B12 in the digestive track.  Because of this it may be a good idea to take a multivitamin that contains vitamin B12 or a vitamin B12 supplement.  Before taking any supplements, check with your doctor to make sure taking a supplement is right for you.

What do scientific studies say?

Studies show that vitamin B12 deficiency is common in older adults (20-30%) and should be addressed as soon as possible (2, 9).   One study found that vitamin B12 deficiency was linked to dementia (1).  Another study showed that vitamin B12 supplements could improve mental function in older adults (4).

Useful Handout

Check out this handout from the National Institutes of Health for some quick facts on vitamin B12, supplement recommendations and dietary sources.


The Bottom Line

Vitamin B12 deficiency becomes a problem as we age because we don’t get enough in our diets and it is not absorbed well in the digestive track.  Vitamin B12 deficiency can lead to fatigue, weakness, poor mental function and pernicious anemia.  You can improve you vitamin B12 intake by consuming foods high in vitamin B12 like seafood, meats and fortified grain cereals.  Supplements can also help increase your vitamin B12 intake.

Guest Blogger:  Jillian Mickens


1. Blundo, C., D. Marin, and M. Ricci “Vitamin B12 Deficiency Associated with Symptoms of Frontotemporal Dementia.” Neurol Sci 7 (2010): 1-5. Print.

2. Andres, E. et al “Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) Deficiency in Elderly Patients.” CMAJ 171.3 (2004): 251-259. Print

3. Nilsson-Ehle, H.. “Age-related Changes in Cobalamin (vitamin B12) Handling. Implications for Therapy.” Drugs Aging 12.4 (1998): 277-292. Print.

4. Bozoglu, E. et al “The Effects of Early Vitamin B12 Replacement Therapy on the Cognitive and Functional Status of Elderly Subjects.” Bulletin of Clinical Psychopharmacology 20.2 (2010): 120-124. Print.

5. Vitamin B12. MedlinePlus, 11 Aug. 2010. Web. 18 Oct. 2010. <http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/926.html&gt;.

6. Salmon image. < http://photos.demandstudios.com/12/2/fotolia_3617375_XS.jpg>

7. Cereal image. < http://mindbodyspirit.glam.com/articles/detail/are_you_low_on_vitamin_b12>

8. Steak image. < http://health.slides.kaboose.com/172-feel-good-foods-mood-boosters/11>

9. Bernstein, Melissa, and Ann S. Luggen. Nutrition in the Older Adult. Sudbury, Massachusetts: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 2010. Print.


Iron: It’s not just for your clothes…

Iron:  It’s not just for your clothes…

When thinking about iron, it’s easy to associate it solely with the old ironing board and starchy, pressed shirts.  But we require dietary iron – iron helps your blood cells carry oxygen throughout the body.  Without enough iron in your diet, iron-deficiency anemia can develop leaving you feeling tired, weak, dizzy, and short of breath.

Anemia is of particular concern for older adults – in the US over 3 million adults aged 65 years and older have anemia, with men and women being affected equally1.  In older adults, researchers have found that anemia is associated with decreased mobility, decreased quality of life, increased risk of depression, increased risk for dementia and increased mortality2.  If you’re concerned you may have anemia, your doctor can perform a simple blood test.

The good news is that iron-deficiency anemia may be prevented with sufficient dietary intake of iron – 8 mg/day for adults over age 513.  Iron found in meat products, such as lean red meat, pork, poultry, fish and liver, is best absorbed.  Other iron-rich foods include beans, lentils, dark leafy green vegetables, and fortified cereal.  By eating foods high in Vitamin C with the iron-rich foods, you increase the amount of iron your body can absorb.  So add citrus fruits and juices, tomatoes, melons, dark leafy greens or potatoes to your meal.  However, be aware that certain foods decrease the body’s ability to absorb iron, such as tea and coffee – so enjoy your coffee and tea between meals instead of with your meal.

Preventing iron-deficiency anemia can be as simple as including iron-rich foods and foods with Vitamin C in your 3 square meals a day.  So when you wake up, you may iron your clothes, but more importantly remember to have foods with iron and Vitamin C at breakfast!

Handout about Iron-Deficiency Anemia:Preventing Anemia Handout

Guest Blogger:  Cheryl Molinatto


1. Guralnik, Jack M., et al. Anemia in the Elderly: A Public Health Crisis in Hematology. Hematology, Jan 2005; 2005: 528 – 532.

2. Bross, M., et al.  Anemia in Older Persons.  American Family Physician, Sept 2010; 82: 480-487.

3. Marian, M. and Sacks, G.  Micronutrients and Older Adults. Nutr Clin Pract, Apr 2009; 24: 179 – 195.





Vitamin D-fence

Vitamin D-fence

Vitamin D is a blazing hot topic in the field of nutrition. The latest research reveals that, in addition to its best known role in maintaining strong bones, vitamin D also plays important roles in building muscle, destroying cancer, suppressing inflammation, and controlling blood sugar, to name a few 1,2. These actions defend the body against a number of health problems that are especially common in older adults.

Functions and Benefits of Vitamin D
Preserve bone calcium Prevention of osteoporosis
Increase muscle strength Prevention of falls
Destroy cancer cells Prevention of cancer
Suppress inflammatory cells Prevention of heart disease
Control blood sugar levels Prevention of diabetes

Vitamin D requirements increase with age. Despite all the new research, the exact amount of vitamin D needed for optimal health is still unclear3,4. The Dietary Reference Intakes recommend adults age 51-70 get 400 IU (international units) and adults over age 70 get 600 IU each day5. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend everyone over age 50 get 1,000 IU each day6.

Up to 2,000 IU is safe, although people rarely get that much.

Skin can use sunlight to make some vitamin D. The rest must come from foods that naturally contain vitamin D, foods that have added vitamin D, and supplements. Unfortunately, most older adults have inadequate vitamin D because they need more, they eat less, and their skin makes less7. To get more vitamin D, enjoy some time outdoors, but remember that too much sun exposure is a risk for skin cancer. Consider food sources: fortified milk, margarine, juice, and cereals; fatty fish, such as salmon; and eggs. Talk with your doctor about vitamin D supplements.

For more information on this topic, check out this Good Morning Maryland interview with Dr. Alicia Arbaje:

Vitamin D Handout: VitaminD-QuickFacts

Guest Blogger:  Jessica Davis


1. Bikle D. Nonclassic actions of vitamin D. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009; 94(1): 26-34.

2. Bernstein, Melissa. “Vitamin Status and Requirements of the Older Adult.” Nutrition for the Older Adult. 1 ed. Boston: Jones & Bartlett Publishers, 2009. 57-68. Print.

3. Vieth R, Bischoff-Ferrari H, Boucher BJ, et al. The urgent need to recommend an intake of vitamin D that is effective. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007; 85: 649-50.

4. Johnson MA, Kimlin MG. Vitamin D, aging, and the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Nutr Rev. 2006; 64(9): 410-21.

5. “Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride: Dietary Guidance : Food and Nutrition Information Center.” Food and Nutrition Information Center. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Oct. 2010. http://fnic.nal.usda.gov/nal_display/index.php?info_center=4&tax_level=4&tax_subject=256&topic_id=1342&level3_id=5141&level4_id=10587.

6. “Chapter 2 Adequate Nutrients Within Calorie Needs.” www.health.gov. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Oct. 2010. http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/dga2005/document/html/chapter2.htm.

7. Holick MF. Vitamin D deficiency. N Engl J Med. 2007; 357(3): 266-81.


1. Gordon, Renee. “Osteoporosis Foundation – Calcium-rich Diet.” Osteoporosis Foundation – Information, Education, Awareness, Support, Prevention of Osteoporosis and Bone Loss, Metabolic Bone Disorder. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Oct. 2010. http://www.osteofoundation.org/Calcium.html

2. Vitamin D. N.d. Skin Nutrition, N/A. dermaharmony. Web. 5 Oct. 2010. http://www.dermaharmony.com/skinnutrition/vitamind3.aspx


1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JGP21ViE8co